36. [E] It is worth stressing that these anumeric people are cognitively normal，well-adapted to the surroundings they have dominated for centuries.
37. [H] Compared with other mammals, our numerical instincts are not as remarkable as many assume.
38. [E] It is worth stressing that these anumeric people are cognitively normal，well-adapted to the surroundings they have dominated for centuries.
39. [B]But, in a historical sense,, number-conscious people like us are the unusual ones.
40. [K]Research on the language of numbers shows, more and more, that one of our species' key characteristics is tremendous linguistic(语言的)and cognitive diversity.
41. [D]This and many other experiments have led to a simple conclusion:When people do not have number words,they struggle to make quantitative distinctions that probably seem natural to someone like you or me.
42. [G] None of us,then,is really a"numbers person."We are not born to handle quantitative distinctions skillfully 43.[A] Numbers do not exist in all cultures.
43. [l] So,how did we ever invent "unnatural"numbers in the first place? The answer is,literally,at your fingertips.
44. [F]This conclusion is echoed by work with anumeric children in industrialized societies.
36. [G]One straightforward reason close losers might outperform narrow winners is that the two groups have comparable ability
37. [D]Others in the US have found similar effects with National Institutes of Health early-career fellowships launching narrow winners far ahead of close losers.
38. [K]n sports and many areas of life,we think of failures as evidence of something we could have done better.
39. [B]One way social scientists have probed the effects of career setbacks is to look at scientists of very similar qualifications.
40. ]He said the people who should be paying regard to the Wang paper are the funding agents who distribute government grant money.
41. [F]In a study published in Nature Communications,North- western University sociologist Dashun Wang tracked more than 1,100 scientists who were on the border between getting a grant and missing out between 1990 and 2005.
42. [J]For his part,Wang said that in his own experience,losing did light a motivating fire.
43. [C]A 2018 study published in the Proceedings of the Nation- al Academy of Sciences, for example,followed researchers in the Netherlands.
44. He said the people who should be paying regard to the Wang paper are the funding agents who distribute government grant money.
45. [E]This is bad news for the losers.
36. [E]In addition,studies find the first year of high school typically shows one of the greatest increases in depression of any year over the lifespan.
37. [G]In one recent study, we examined 360 adolescents' beliefs about the nature of "smartness"-that is, their fixed mindsets about intelligence.
38. [J]These findings lead to several possibilities that we are investigating further.
39. [C]In the new global economy, students who fail to finish the ninth grade with passing grades in college preparatory coursework are very unlikely to graduate on time and go on to get jobs.
40. [H]We also investigated the social side of the high school transition.
41. [E]In addition, studies find the first year of high school typically shows one of the greatest increases in depression of any year over the lifespan.
42. [D]The consequences of doing poorly in the ninth grade can impact more than students' ability to find a good job.
43. [A]This month, more than 4 million students across the nation will begin high school.
44. [Experiment results showed that students who were not taught that people can change showed poor stress responses.
45. [F]Given all that's riding on having a successful ninth grade experience, it pays to explore what can be done to meet the academic, social and emotional challenges of the transition to high school.
46. C)They help students acquire the skills needed for their future success.
47. A) By blending them with traditional, stimulating activities
48. B) By playing with things to solve problems on their own.
49. C) Encourage them to make things with hands.
50. B) Develop students' creative skills with the resources available
51. B) It does not appeal to him.
52. C) Many employees are deeply frustrated by iT.
53. D) Employees become more confident in their work.
54. D) Think about the possible effects on their employees.
55. A) By designing systems that suit their needs.
46. B) They turned public attention away from the health risks of sugar to fat.
47.D) Nearly all of them serve the purpose of the funders.
48. A) Exercise is more important to good health than diet.
49.C) It rarely results in objective findings.
50.D) Think twice about new nutrition research findings.
51. C) How people viewed success in his father's time.
52. B) It was a way to advance in their career
53. A) They are often regarded as most treasured talents
54. C) What kind of people can contribute more to them.
55. D) It will bring about radical economic and social changes.
46. A) It facilitates innovative thinking.
47. A) A need to be left alone.
48. C) It may prevent people from developing a genuine sense of community.
49. B) Reflect on how they relate to others.
50. D) Devote themselves to a worthy cause.
51. A) Calorie consumption had fallen drastically over the decades.
52. A) People' s calorie intake was far from accurately reported.
53. B) They overlook the potential causes of obesity.
54. B) The potential causes of snacking.
55. B)Make sure people eat non-fattening food.