Living with parents edges out other livingarrangements for 18- to 34-year-olds
A)Broad demographic (人口的)shifts in maritalstatus, educational attainment and employmenthave transformed the way young adults in the U. S. are living, and a new Pew Research Center analysishighlights the implications of these changes for themost basic element of their lives -- where they callhome. In 2014, for the first time in more than 130 years, adults ages 18 to 34 were slightlymore likely to be living in their parents' home than they were to be living with a spouse orpartner in their own household.
B)This turn of events is fueled primarily by the dramatic drop in the share of young Americanswho are choosing to settle down romantically before age 35. Dating back to 1880, the mostcommon living arrangement among young adults has been living with a romantic partner, whether a spouse or a significant other. This type of arrangement peaked around I960, when62% of the nation's 18- to 34-year-olds were living with a spouse or partner in their ownhousehold, and only one-in-five were living with their parents.
C)By 2014, 31.6% of young adults were living with a spouse or partner in their ownhousehold, below the share living in the home of their parent(s) (32.1%). Some 14% of youngadults lived alone, were a single parent or lived with one or more roommates. The remaining22% lived in the home of another family member (such as a grandparent, in-law or sibling), anon-relative, or in group quarters like college dormitories.
D)It's worth noting that the overall share of young adults living with their parents was not at arecord high in 2014. This arrangement peaked around 1940, when about 35% of the nation's18- to 34-year- olds lived with mom and/or dad (compared with 32% in 2014). What haschanged, instead, is the relative share adopting different ways of living in early adulthood, withthe decline of romantic coupling pushing living at home to the top of a much less uniform listof living arrangements.
E)Among young adults, living arrangements differ significantly by gender. For men aged 18 to34, living at home with mom and/or dad has been the dominant living arrangement since2009. In 2014, 28% of young men were living with a spouse or partner in their own home, while 35% were living in the home of their parent (s). Young women, however, are still morelikely to be living with a spouse or romantic partner (35%) than they are to be living withtheir parent(s) (29%).
F)In 2014, more young women (16%) than young men (13%) were heading up a householdwithout a spouse or partner. This is mainly because women are more likely than men to besingle parents living with their children. For their part, young men (25%) are more likely thanyoung women (19%) to be living in the home of another family member, a non-relative or insome type of group quarters.
G)A variety of factors contribute to the long-run increase in the share of young adults livingwith their I parents. The first is the postponement of, if not retreat from, marriage. Theaverage age of first marriage has risen steadily for decades. In addition, a growing share ofyoung adults may be avoiding marriage altogether. A previous Pew Research Center analysisprojected that as many as one-in-four of today's young adults may never marry. Whilecohabitation (同居)has been on the rise, the overall ! share of young adults either married orliving with an unmarried partner has substantially fallen since 1990.
H)In addition, trends in both employment status and wages have likely contributed to thegrowing share of young adults who are living in the home of their parent(s), and this isespecially true of young men. Employed young men are much less likely to live at home thanyoung men without a job, and employment among young men has fallen significantly in recentdecades. The share of young men with jobs peaked around 1960 at 84%. In 2014, only 71% of18- to 34-year-old men were employed. Similarly with earnings, young men's wages (afteradjusting for inflation) have been on a downward trajectory (轨迹)since 1970 and fellsignificantly from 2000 to 2010. As wages have fallen, the share of young men living in thehome of their parent(s) has risen.
I).Economic factors seem to explain less of why young adult women are increasingly likely tolive at home. Generally, young women have had growing success in the paid labor market since1960 and hence might increasingly be expected to be able to afford to live independently oftheir parents. For women, delayed marriage-which is related, in part, to labor marketoutcomes for men-may explain more of the increase in their living in the family home.
J) The Great Recession (and modest recovery) has also been associated with an increase inyoung adults living at home. Initially in the wake of the recession, college enrollmentsexpanded, boosting the ranks of young adults living at home. And given the weak jobopportunities facing young adults, living at home was part of the private safety net helpingyoung adults to weather the economic storm.
K) Beyond gender, young adults, living arrangements differ considerably by education—which istied to financial means. For young adults without a bachelor's degree, as of 2008 living at homewith their parents was more prevalent than living with a romantic partner. By 2014, 36% of18- to 34-year-olds who had not completed a bachelor's degree were living with their parent(s) while 27% were living with a spouse or partner. Among college graduates, in 2014 46% weremarried or living with a partner, and only 19% were living with their parents(s). Young adultswith a college degree have fared much better in the labor market than their less-educatedcounterparts, which has in turn made it easier to establish their own households.
36.Unemployed young men are more likely to live with their parents than the employed.
37.In 2014, the percentage of men aged 18 to 34 living with their parents was greater thanthat of their female counterparts.
38.The percentage of young people who are married or live with a partner has greatlydecreased in the past three decades or so.
39.Around the mid-20th century, only 20 percent of 18- to 34-year-olds lived in their parents'home.
40.Young adults with a college degree found it easier to live independently of their parents.
41.Young men are less likely to end up as single parents than young women.
42.More young adult women live with their parents than before due to delayed marriage.
43.The percentage of young men who live with their parents has grown due to their decreasedpay in recent decades.
44.The rise in the number of college students made more young adults live with their parents.
45.One reason for young adults to live with their parents is that they get married late or staysingle all their lives.